What is dart programming language? | a beginner’s guide to its features & functions

Are you a developer searching for a “Javascript-killer”?

Or are you casually browsing to know about Dart and its facts, mainly how it works with value, string, class, and others?

This guide has everything you need to learn about the Dart Programming Language and all its features and uses.

What Is Dart?

Dart is a general-purpose programming language (GPL) developed by Google, and Dart’s version 1.0 in 2013 was designed by Lars Bak and Kasper Lund.

In 2011, a US correspondent, Joab Jackson, labeled this Google-developed language as a Javascript-killer , which the developers never verified.

Nonetheless, Dart programming is created as an object-oriented programming language (OOP) that focuses on objects (like string, class, interface) and not on Math ( method and logic).

In order for you to develop apps, it follows a different method from other established programming languages, like Java, as you will work with Flutter and only use Dart codes.

It is designed and created to give opportunities for developers to advance their mobile apps and fast apps using the Dart language.

Here are some other notable features about Dart:

  • Static type checking is embedded in the Dart programming, ensuring the data type, like a string of a variable, can be readable in its intended format.

  • It also has the spread operator characterized by an ellipsis (…) that literally spreads the string value into its own individual object (e.g., string, class).

  • The sound null safety feature is also present in Dart, which assures that a variable will not have null default values unless you input a new value indicating them as null.

Moreover, based on developers, this null safety feature helps you avoid errors and issues from null pointer dereference.

Dart 2.0 was released in 2018 with the following changes and developments from the previous version:

  • 2.0 has a sound type system

  • No checked mode

  • 2.0 has different language and libraries

  • 2.0 has a new build system

Current versions of Dart language also work smoothly with other programming languages, such as when using Objective-C and Swift interoperability, along with improvements on the following:

  • Networking

  • Type inference

  • Async support

Regardless of the versions, Dart as a programming language is ECMA International-certified, which means the Dart core libraries and platforms are standardized.

Dart Core Libraries

The Dart team offers developers a comprehensive option of libraries to help in their programming tasks. It varies from multi-platform libraries, native platform libraries, and web platform libraries.

Dart libraries include the following example, among others:

  • Conversion of data representations

  • Hashmaps

  • Random number generation

  • HTML elements

  • Uses isolates that are independent workers who don’t share memory

  • Asynchronous programming essentials

  • Constants and functions

  • Linked lists

  • Queues

Onto the most essentials, here are some of the core library codes:

  • Multi-platform libraries include these codes:

    • dart:async, package:async

    • dart:collection, package:collection

    • dart:convert, package:convert

    • dart:core

    • dart:developer

    • dart:math

    • dart:typed_data, package:typed_data

  • Native libraries include these codes:

    • dart:mirrors

    • dart:isolate

    • dart:ffi, package:ffi

    • dart:io, package:io

  • Web platform libraries include these codes:

    • dart:indexed_db

    • dart:html

    • dart:js, dart:js_util, package:js

    • dart:svg

    • dart:web_audio

    • dart:web_gl

To fully grasp the programming tasks and core functionality of the codes from the Dart core libraries and to practice maneuvering them properly, you can try them on the DartPad.

The DartPad allows you to work on the native machine code and Dart code without actually installing anything on your computer.

Dart Platforms

After stating the codes above, a question arises as to what platform these codes run on.

With Dart programming, you can run the codes depending on the platform you intend to use because it has different compiler technology.

The Dart compilers let you have dynamic and static typing of code contrary to the usual static adapted by other programming languages, like Java, which has a lengthy process even when using the var keyword.

The multi-platform libraries are compatible with every Dart platform. On the other hand, the native platform and web platform libraries only perform within their labels, native platforms, and web platform, respectively.

These platforms are supported by a virtual machine compiler, the Dart VM . With the Dart VM compiler, you get both the AOT and JIT for compiled language to produce machine code. Dart runtime is also installed along with self-contained executables.

In generating machine code, these operation modes from Dart VM work differently depending on the compile time, whereas the JIT compiler works on execution time as its name suggests, just-in-time, and the AOT compiler (ahead-of-time) works upon application-building.

Nevertheless, the Dart native platforms use AOT and JIT as compilers, while the Dart web platform through the deployable Javascript compiler.

It also has two toolchains:

  • Development toolchain

  • Production toolchain

Moreover, the Dart platforms (web and native) also power Flutter apps, where you can easily create front-end user interfaces for any screen while quickly incorporating any Dart code.

In specifics, the Dart platform also involves the Dart web and Dart runtime:

Dart Web

This feature allows Dart code to be used on web platforms or browsers. Yet, to maximize this, JavaScript is needed, as the Dart code will be compiled into JavaScript.

Dart runtime

The Dart runtime is a staple every time you run a Dart code. It manages memory, the main isolate, and helps operate innovative Dart compilers in utilizing a data type of a variable, mainly dynamic ones.

What Is the Dart Language Used For?

The Dart language has the main function of developing apps on different platforms because it falls under the umbrella of general-purpose programming language.

Aside from the mentioned function, Dart is also marketed toward client development using an object-oriented programming language, static type analysis, and C-style syntax.

Contrary to programming languages like Java, which may give developers a steep learning curve, the Dart Language aims to create a harmonious relationship between the program and the developers.

This is achieved through Dart’s built-in tools, code, comprehensive options on the Dart libraries, access to Dart platforms, and its compilers.

Specifically, here is how Dart functions, modified from their official website, to present the word object :

void main() {



Moreover, here’s how another function works when you add specifics of a variable, like a newspaper :

void main() {

var name = ‘Newspaper’;

var year = 2022;


If you have noticed, void main is apparent in the examples. Void main is introduced primarily in Dart’s language as inputting void main prompts Dart of the starting point. Basically, void main is where the programming process commences.

You can also incorporate mathematical equations; just make sure you identify each value and how the value will be solved.

With Dart and its compiled native machine code, you can have the upper hand for comfort, ease, and functionality when you use it together with Flutter to make the following:

  • Native mobile apps (e.g., Android, IOS)

  • Desktop apps

  • Web apps

  • Servers

  • Google Ads

Dart and Mobile App Development

The Dart program includes relatively more straightforward programming tools that prioritize object person and object creation using a string or class more than the Mathematical method, functions, and logic.

Dart code works best with Flutter’s app process to create different mobile app development languages using an interactive workflow.

In creating an app, the Flutter and Dart development creates a cross-platform interaction where it incorporates sound null safety for any variable in the code, systematic function declaration, converting different data representations with the in-system codes, and more to write an app.

As reviews say, it is like using JavaScript and C#, but better as it is great for mobile app development for beginners AND pros in the industry.

What Makes Dart Code So Great?

Dart Code’s developments make it great, particularly its shift to a strongly typed programming language and its use of Flutter’s mechanisms using a single code base for creating multi-platform applications.

Also, Dart supports many core developer tasks, including these:

  • Analyzing

  • Testing code

  • Formatting

  • Facilitating source code

It involves better features than Java and other programming languages, which are easier to utilize, accommodating to beginners, and streamlined while in the process of apps’ active development.

The example includes:

  • Class point

  • Code organization, including the package name & entry point

  • Constructors

  • Data types of variable

  • Dynamic (runtime) and static (compile-time) typing

  • Function declaration syntax

  • Isolates

  • Modifiers

  • Operators

  • Type inference

The Dart language has the DartPad , in which you can input and practice native code without having to download anything memory-consuming programs on your computer. You only need your browser for this.

Moreover, in Dart, although you will only utilize Dart codes in making a user interface in Flutter’s platform, it also incorporates hot reload to make any developer’s work easier and faster.

In hot reload, you do not need to update the source code files manually, as it automatically inserts the modified codes into the Dart VM.

Frequently Asked Questions

In learning about another program’s dynamics and language, questions are welcome for a better understanding.

Here are some of the frequently asked questions and their answers:

Is Dart an OOP Language?

Yes, the Dart team created and developed this to be object-oriented programming to primarily facilitate object-creation or data field through string and class (for example) rather than Mathematical values and functions.

Is Dart a Scripting Language?

Yes, Dart is a scripting language commonly appropriated on short scripts like Java, Python, Perl, and Ruby. Aside from a compiler, Dart, as a scripting language, uses an interpreter to expound codes and analyze a data type.

Is Dart Front End or Backend?

With its cross-platform partnership with Flutter, Dart uses front-end development that focuses on the user interface of apps.

Is Dart Better Than Java?

Yes, Dart is better than Java, even if both are object-oriented languages focusing on a string, an integer, a class, and other values.

This is because Dart has comparably accessible and fun-to-manipulate features, for example, dynamic and static typing, sound null safety, various compilers, and more.

Is Dart Difficult to Learn?

No, Dart is easy to learn because of its simplified and user-friendly features and code mechanism. It has an easy-upward learning curve, for example, writing code for the web, designing code, and other programming tasks for any android, IOS, and web browser app.

Final Words

In reality, Dart, one of the relatively new programming languages on the market, is a beneficial tool for beginners and pros alike.

This object-oriented programming works best with Flutter’s function and dynamics. It holds great value as it has better features, with the hot reload as an example.

Moreover, Dart can also do things that JavaScript can do. For example, from integrating code to compiling values and creating user interfaces, and for a bonus, it has more comprehensive libraries and built-in codes.

You can even practice inputting any value, object, string, class, var name, and everything you need to develop an app from your browser through the DartPad. This function makes your practice in Dart better.

Nevertheless, even if Dart was labeled by the press as a JavaScript killer and has simplified programming dynamics, it still has not surpassed JavaScript and Java as the top programming languages used by developers (as stated in the PYPL index and TIOBE index).

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