What Is the Best Programming Language for Blockchain?

The demand for blockchain technology only grows as it finds more success in different industries.

Blockchain is revolutionizing how we think about software development.

Read on if you’re looking for the ideal blockchain programming language for your next blockchain project!

This article has compiled a list of the BEST programming languages for blockchain development.

The Best Blockchain Programming Languages

Let’s take a closer look at some of the top programming languages used for blockchain development.

1.) Native iOS Swift

Backed by one of the leading tech companies in the world, Swift is a statically typed programming language created by Apple in 2014.
Swift got rid of the constraints and weaknesses of its predecessor Objective-C, making coding more CONVENIENT and efficient than ever.
It’s designed to be a fast, high-performance multi-paradigm language with simple syntax and consistent code alongside a rich library class.
Safe and secure, Swift eliminates several programming errors with its safety features to prevent accidental runtime crashes.
Swift is fast becoming one of the most popular programming languages for blockchain app development.
It topped StackOverflow’s 2015 Developer Survey as the “most loved” technology of 2015.

  • Easy onboarding
  • Fast development process
  • Great first language
  • Open-source community
  • Language still young
  • Poor cross-platform support
  • Limited pool of Swift developers
2.) Native Android Kotlin

Kotlin is a concise multi-paradigm programming language produced by the developers of IDE IntelliJ for Java Virtual machine (JVM) and Android.

It behaves similarly to Java and is compatible with the Java ecosystem, so it’s easy to pick up for Java developers.

We find Kotlin to be a more concise Java language that takes away the repetition in constructing Java variables.

Not only that, but it also removes null references and enables extension functions and coroutines, among other features.

Kotlin also has functional and object-oriented programming features. It can interact with existing platform libraries and interoperate with Java classes seamlessly.

Kotlin is also great with its high-level programming language if you wish to create your own ledger technology.

  • General purpose
  • Easy to learn
  • Interoperable with Javascript infrastructures
  • Reliable and less buggy
  • Limited learning resources
  • Different
3.) Solidity

Built by the creators of Ethereum, Solidity is a blockchain programming language optimized to run on the Ethereum virtual machine (EVM).

It’s a domain-specific language that is specifically designed for smart contract development.

Solidity uses a high-level blockchain coding language inspired by the top blockchain coding languages like C++, Python, and Javascript.

Due to its likeness to other programming languages, it’s easy for developers to master. It also comes with several features and tools used in blockchain development.

Renowned for its STABILITY and benefits, it’s one of the fastest-growing blockchain development languages in Ethereum and the blockchain industry.

  • Precise accuracy
  • User-friendly
  • Stable and reliable
  • Accessibility to Javascript infrastructures
  • Used for building blockchain ONLY
  • Might lack sufficient code coverage
4.) C++

C++ is one of the oldest and most popular programming languages used in the software industry, introduced in 1985.

Unlike other binary coding languages, C++ uses object-oriented programming that is much easier to work with.

It’s a near-universal programming language used by many operating systems and browsers as their primary language.

Many blockchain developers prefer C++ for its features, such as:

  • Runtime polymorphism
  • Multithreading
  • CPU management and memory control
  • Code isolation
  • Data hiding
    It continues to be a popular blockchain programming language for its data-hiding feature that can secure blockchain solutions.

You can find many programming developers who use it in developing smart contracts and building blockchains.

What programming language is the Bitcoin blockchain written in? It’s coded using C++!

Major blockchain platforms like Ripple, EOS, and Stellar also use this language.


Written with C++ and Dart, Flutter is an open-source programming language framework supported by Google.

Known for its smooth web application building, you can integrate blockchain using its effortless framework.

If you’re interested in blockchain app development, Flutter allows FAST and FLEXIBLE application building for decentralized applications (DAPPs) on the Ethereum blockchain.

Flutter makes it incredibly easy to create DAPPs that develop smart contracts in a single codebase.

  • General purpose
  • Efficient and reliable
  • Rapid execution time
  • Complex and lengthy
  • Does not support garbage pickup
  • Does not support built-in code threads
5.) Javascript

Javascript is the most popular programming language in the WORLD, used by the likes of Facebook, Twitter, Netflix, and more.

It’s a multi-paradigm language that can get you far. Several protocols and frameworks are already set up for Javascript to create smart contracts.

Because it’s so popular and accessible, Javascript can be a getaway to learn other languages for blockchain development later on.

With its VERSATILITY and INTEROPERABILITY, Javascript is a great option for creating a secure and highly capable blockchain with a rich interface.


If we’re talking about Javascript and blockchain, it’s impossible not to mention Node.js.

Node.js is a Javascript blockchain framework that offers several advantages for developers looking into blockchain programming.

In blockchain development, Javascript’s Node.js provides the Hyperledger Fabric SDK for blockchain solutions.

There are other Software Development Kits (SDK) that use Node.js, like the Lisk SDK, that are meant to be easy to use for creating a blockchain.

Node.js is a more accessible framework for both young and older developers to learn to enter the blockchain space.

React Native

Another Javascript framework is React Native, a simple yet powerful language that can create complex cross-platform applications.

Arguably its best advantage, React Native’s code reusability, can help you cut down time and cost with your project.

With its vast open-source library from a community of developers, pre-developed components are accessible for an EVEN FASTER development pace!


React.js is an open-source Javascript framework and front-end library developed by Facebook for building smoother interactive user interfaces.

It’s currently the most popular programming language library by Javascript for building user interfaces.

  • Easier onboarding due to simplicity
  • Interoperability
  • Greater scalability
  • Easier entry into the market
  • Multiple Javascript frameworks
  • Inconsistency on different platforms
  • Security issues
  • No multithreading properties
  • Lacks hash functions
6.) Java

Among the top blockchain programming languages, Java is a platform-independent, object-oriented language with more than 9 million developers worldwide.

Java is the best for creating smart contracts. It has several features that make it ideal for developing decentralized apps.

It has multithreading support and concurrency, allowing you to run multiple tasks, surpassing the usual programming languages regarding asynchronous actions.

Many developers turn to Java for creating blockchain solutions for its POPULARITY and extensive community support.


Elasticsearch is a distributed, open search and analytics engine built on the Apache Lucene library using Java.

Released in 2010, it’s quickly gaining popularity for business analytics, security intelligence, and full-text search.

Essentially, this search engine allows large-scale storage and analysis of HUGE volumes of data.

If you want to access system security logs or perform business analytics regarding your network, Elasticsearch can be a powerful addition to your blockchain programming.

Elasticsearch can observe and monitor any applications built on your blockchain framework.

It’s a versatile tool fast becoming an appealing analytics engine for developers.

  • Real-time search engine
  • Multilingual
  • Compatible with multiple platforms
  • Fast performance
  • Difficult to learn
7.) PHP

Introduced in 1995, PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is one of the most widely-used general-purpose programming languages for developing interactive websites.

Development companies highly recommend it for creating a diverse range of blockchain solutions.

PHP supports object-oriented programming with a huge library that streamlines the work of developers for blockchain coding.

Thanks to its active open-source community, you can build a simple or complex blockchain with reputable PHP developers.


Laravel is an open-source, back-end PHP framework for creating custom web applications.

This framework is a popular choice for businesses from various fields like IT, finance, entertainment, and the like.

It has continued to be among PHP’s most preferred server-side frameworks for over a decade.

Though its use in blockchain networks is not well-documented just yet, it has all the gears to make it an impressive tool for building a blockchain app.

  • Open-source community
  • Can work with different operating systems
  • Simple
  • Fast development time
  • Frequent runtime errors
  • Not ideal for huge content-based applications

What Is Blockchain Programming?

First, let’s talk about blockchains.

A blockchain is a decentralized database or ledger managed by computers in peer-to-peer networks.

It stores data in blocks that are then linked to other blocks to create a data chain.

A blockchain’s DECENTRALIZED nature guarantees a tamper-proof way to store digital transactions.

Before a blockchain network is released, certain features and protocols that form its architecture should be written in code.

Blockchain programming uses languages such as C++ and Java for writing smart contracts or decentralized apps (DAPPs).

Popular Blockchain Programming Platforms
Hyperledger and Ethereum allow for building DAPPs that run on blockchain technology.

With the former, it offers tools that support the development of distributed ledgers through an easy-to-use application programming interface (API).

Ethereum is an open-source blockchain platform that supports smart contract development.

Smart contracts are built using the Ethereum programming language, Solidity, which runs on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

What Skills Do I Need to Learn Blockchain Programming?

There are several skills that every blockchain developer should have.

Companies may have varying demands on the level of expertise and experience. Regardless, here are the ESSENTIAL skills for a successful blockchain programmer.

1: Programming

Programming is crucial in learning blockchain development. It encompasses a broad category of skills, including coding and web development.

Web developers should have a working understanding of coding in different languages for web and blockchain development.

Coding skills are necessary to properly manage and secure data, keep up with network demands and maintain seamless transactions.

Strong knowledge of an object-oriented programming language is essential to work with the most common programming languages for blockchain.

2: Blockchain Architecture

As an aspiring developer, understanding how the blockchain world operates is a MUST.

There are several key concepts that developers should be familiar with, such as:

  • Cryptography
  • Hash functions
  • Smart contracts
  • Distributed ledgers

Whether you’re designing blockchain as a core developer or building blockchain apps as a software developer, knowing blockchain architecture is only the beginning.

On top of that, acquaint yourself with the different types of blockchain architecture. Different types of architecture have different strengths and weaknesses.

Depending on what you’ll be doing, understanding these types is essential for blockchain developers to maximize their coding skills.

3: Cybersecurity

Blockchain is gaining notoriety as one of the new paths to STRONGER SECURITY, offering superior resistance against cyber criminals.

With its layered digital cryptography and decentralized nature, blockchain relies on digital security to protect data and prevent manipulation or hacking.

A developer needs to know the best practices to reduce risks against attacks.

In particular, learning how blockchain’s Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) works is valuable to understand how to maintain a chain’s security.

As cyber-attacks gradually evolve, so should blockchain developers.

4: Cryptography

Similarly to cybersecurity, cryptography guarantees security protection against unauthorized access in a blockchain network.

You’ll be working with several cryptography concepts, such as:

  • Encryption
  • Hash functions
  • Symmetric and asymmetric keys
  • Digital signatures

These concepts form the foundation of the blockchain. They ensure that each block is SECURELY connected to other blocks on the blockchain.

5: Data Structures

Blockchain developers work with different data structures to apply them in the blockchain network.

Each block is a data structure that clusters transactions in a public ledger. It can refer to a single block or as many as an entire blockchain.

These structures serve as the framework of all blockchain networks.

It’s a gateway to learning more about complex skills such as data storage, data defense, and distribution.

6: Smart Contracts

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that enable two network parties to exchange data without needing a third-party intermediary.

All blockchain solutions and interactions use smart contracts.

Since most blockchain activity involves transactions, smart contracts are INTEGRAL for transparency and network fluidity.

If you’re interested in blockchain programming, learning about smart contracts is necessary to understand how they apply to various networks.

Factors to Consider When Choosing the Best Blockchain Programming Languages

Below are the necessary factors to consider when choosing the ideal blockchain coding language for your needs:

1: Goals

The programming language you pick should align with your plans in blockchain development.

Although there are many languages, they have different tools suitable for different purposes.

Find the best ecosystem for your project to discover the programming language that best fits your plans.

Choose what you want to provide to your users, your potential partners and where you want to see your project.

2: Personal Skills

If you’re already skilled in a language, say Java, you can be sure of its reliability and the tools it offers.

But perhaps you’re new to programming. The other languages that are easy to use, like Swift and Kotlin, are accessible even to budding developers.

Choose the programming language you’re familiar with to ensure the best results.

3: Performance

Of course, the performance of the programming language is also an important aspect to look into.

Check the runtime efficiency of different languages to determine if they can run your tasks more productively with fewer crashes and errors.

Using a high-performing programming language with optimized code will save you time and effort in the development process in the long run.

4: Security

The innovation of blockchain is its security system. Therefore, using a language designed with security will make it more resistant to attacks.

Programming languages like Java and C++ have safety features such as data hiding and secure interfaces to reduce threats.

5: Scalability

If you eventually decide to add more team members to your project, a language that is easy to scale will make onboarding more manageable.

Choose a language with simple syntax and a concise codebase for easier readability for new developers.

Frequently Asked Questions

Below are related questions about programming languages that can help you start your blockchain development.

What Should You Learn to Start Developing on the Blockchain?

Blockchain developers require a broad range of skills.

Familiarize yourself with programming languages and LEARN the fundamentals of blockchain principles.

Getting hands-on experience can give you a technical understanding of the tools and techniques needed for blockchain.

Although some companies may hire blockchain developers with a background in web development, security, and networking, it isn’t a hard-and-fast rule.

Many blockchain communities share online tutorials on blockchain programming languages for FREE.

Hone your skills in blockchain coding languages and make the most of it by creating efficient networks.

Is Coding Required for Blockchain Programming?


Knowing how to code is the first step in learning blockchain development.

Learn the languages used in blockchain development to help you get started on blockchain coding.

How Much Does a Blockchain Developer Earn?

The average salary for a blockchain developer in the United States is about $89,974 annually.

It can go higher if you have years of experience in software or blockchain technology. It can go as high as $132,000 annually, including cash bonuses, tips, and commissions.


The best programming language for blockchain development will largely depend on the ecosystem of your blockchain projects, as well as your goals, preferences, and plans.

Different programming languages offer a diverse range of tools and training to help you get started.

We believe Swift is the most compelling blockchain language to watch out for in the market.

Flutter and Kotlin are also notable frameworks. They are not only accessible but also concise, making blockchain programming even more efficient.

Whatever you choose will impact the success and performance of your project.

The decision is yours!

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